Sunday, 7 February 2021

0-16.5 Engines

© 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

It was at the Halifax 2019 model railway show that I was tempted by an old Hornby “Smoky Joe” style 0-4-0 engine sitting in one of the second-hand boxes. I had seen some ideas on YouTube about add simple cylinders and coupling rods to these which looked convincing when completed. Little did I think it would lead me into an interest in a new scale of 7mm.

It was some weeks later when I came round to see what I could do with the old Hornby chassis, my first thoughts were the type of engine I could build from the existing bodywork. I found a very good source of inspiration at the Smallbrook Studios web site. They do resin body conversions for the 00 chassis in a 7mm scale, there is also a good catalog of rolling stock and detailed parts.

I found one saddle tank conversion from a Hornby “Thomas The Tank Engine” Bill Loco just what I liked. I look on eBay and was lucky enough to find a body for the Bachmman version of the Bill engine. My plan was to scratch build a new cab and smokebox door, then buy a cast resin dome and water tank lid. Other details I could get from various other sources.

My next thoughts were on the cylinder conversion, I looked up the You Tube video I had seen previously. The parts used on that were spares form a Hornby Class 28XX 2-8-0 Loco Valve gear, I got a set of these from Peters Spares. Only the crossheads and slide bars would be needed for this job so the other bits would be saved for something in the future. To attach the crossheads and the coupling rods I required some very small 14BA machine screws nuts and washers, and eBay came up with a suitable supplier of these.

I would need to build some simple cylinders to fit onto the existing chassis, and remove the existing moulded ones. To do this I laminated together a couple of Placticard blocks and a bridge between them to form a cylinder arrangement. Holes were drilled to give a clearance fit to the crossheads and a tight fit for the slid bars. The chassis was cut to allow the cylinders to sit in the correct place.

The next job was to alter the coupling rods, these needed to be cut in front of the dummy cross heads, and a clearance hole made in the centre of the rod for the 14BA screws. Once done the screws can be passed through from the back of the coupling rods, a washer placed between them and the crosshead, then a couple of nuts used on the outside of the crossheads will lock them in place. It all needs to be a loose fit to work. Once all is fitted together a quick test run will let you know if any adjustments are required for smooth running.

Once the chassis was running, I started thinking, could I 3D print a version of the cylinders and crossheads. So off I went to the computer and came up with a version that used 0.7mm brass wire for the slide rods and cylinder rod. I used White Versatile Plastic to create the prototype print and after a couple of attempts, I got them working. So I added these to the loco I was building.



© 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved


There came a point when I had to add the Bachmman body to the Hornby chassis, This was not a straight forward fit, but with a little cutting and a bit of Milliput Putty, it went together. By removing some plastic from the bottom of the footplate around the front and rear couplings and infilling a small section to the front of the footplate, where an 8 BA nut could be bonded to the underside. The chassis in turn needed a slot cutting at the back to allow it to fit the rear bodywork. A hole was drilled through the front of the chassis in the centre of the cylinder bridge to allow an 8 BA screw to pass through, this is to hold the chassis and body together. NEM Coupling pockets were fitted in place encased in Milliput putty at both ends of the chassis,

Once I had completed the scratch-built body the natural progression was to see if I could produce a 3D printed version of a body. The only thing to decide what engine to have a go with. In the end, I worked on two types the Skylark style and Peckett style engines which I had already done in 009. These were scaled up and reworked around the new chassis. The idea being, to create a body shell with the cylinders already attached. These could be used as simple conversion to the Hornby chassis by removing the cylinders and couplings from the Hornby chassis, then the chassis would simply push into place under the new body.



© 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved


If you wanted to go further you removed the cylinders from the printed body also and add the additional printed cylinder block and crossheads to the chassis to create a more detailed version of the engine. They would also have pockets in the buffer beams to accommodate NEM coupling pockets at the correct height. Well, it all seemed like a good idea.



© 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved


I had two prototype prints done in White Versatile Plastic to try these out, they both fitted the chassis as expected and work well as simple conversions.

I have also done a third body now, this one is a quarry Hunslet style with a cap that can be built in three versions, one open, one with no back, and a fully enclosed version. I just could not make my mind up which I liked best.



© 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

I have added a list of additional fitting that I used and the supplier below. The three printed bodies and cylinders conversion are available on Shapeways at:

https://www.shapeways.com/shops/model-engine-works?section=0-
16.5+Engines&s=0


List of Parts:

Hornby 0-4-0 Chassis

Printed or scratch-built chassis blocks

Brass 0.7mm brass wires

Parts from Peters Spares

Hornby X8834W Class 28XX 2-8-0 Loco Valve Gear Set Weathered.

Couplings and NEM pockets

sales@petersspares.com

8BA Screws nuts and washers

14 BA screws nuts and washers

© 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved







Sunday, 24 January 2021

009 Atlas Tram and Coach Conversion

 

© 2021 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

There is a really nicely modelled Atlas Editions Bern steam tram and coach out on sale at the minute, which with a little careful conversion makes a very detailed steam tram engine and coach set for 009 modellers. The main additions are a Kato 11-110 chassis to motorise the
steam tram engine and a set of Peco G-106 bogies. There are also a set of Peco GR-103 NEM pockets and some 1mm Plasticard to form some new interface parts to put it all together. The good thing about this is, if done carefully no intricate painting would be needed to get a really detailed pair of models.

The main difficulty with this conversion is the dismantling of the two models. I found that some parts were glued together more affectivity than others. This can cause some breakages as the plastic used is quite delicate. I found that the worst areas were the railings on both the tram and coach, which broke in several places.

© 2021 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

I will start with the coach as that is the simplest and a good starting point to get a feel of the conversion. I removed the wheels, dummy bogies and couplings. The metal used to form the floor of the coach is quite soft and can be cut with a razor saw. The couplings are held on two small metal tabs under the end beams. These need to be cut off in line with the underside of the floor.

© 2021 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

The steps are formed in quite thick plastic and to allow enough swing on the couplings it is a good idea to reduce these on the backside, and soften the inner edges. I ended up having to re-fix one of these as it was not glued on well.


© 2021 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

To fit the bogies, I created a new subfloor in 1mm plasticard which fitted between the steps and the break gear in the centre of the coach. I left the original threaded lugs used to fix the coach to the display base in place and drilled two holes in the new base to allow for these. The other two lugs to fix the dummy bogies in place I had to remove. This was done by drilling, using progressively larger drills. Once at the bottom face of the floor I formed a countersink to allow clearance for the free moment of the new bogies.

To mount the Peco G-106 bogies all that is needed is a hole of the correct size, and they will just clip in place. These were formed by drilling a clearance hole larger than the bogies require in the subfloor. A packer is then made to sit below this which has a smaller hole suited to the bogie's clips. This needs to be fairly small and inbound of the wheels which need to swing freely. I glued this in place under the hole in the subfloor, lining it up the two holes, which formed a small rebate above the hole in the packer.

The bogies were adapted to suit the steps, by using a set of the Peco GR-103 NEM coupling pockets and cutting these and refitting them to form a long bar type mount instead of the moulded L shaped arrangement. I then glued this to the opposite end of the bogie to the existing NEM pocket. By doing this it had a long enough reach to work with the steps. It was then just a case of fitting my preferred coupling in place.

© 2021 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

With this arrangement the coach should be able to negotiate track curves around 200 to 230mm (8 to 9”) and it is a really nicely detailed coach.

The steam tram takes a little more work to dismantle it. The boiler, funnel and pipework are all glued in place then fitted to the base which has to be removed at the bottom, and the side railings are very awkward to get off without breakage. In the end, I removed the roof and windows above the waistline. This allowed me much better access to the bits, but I still had to carefully break the funnel off the boiler. I carefully saved all the bits for re-assembly later, then using the existing base as a template I marked a piece of 1mm plasticard with its shape. I then marked some centre lines on the new base and added a template of the Kato 11-110 cut out.

© 2021 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

Once this is cut out and fits in place OK, some stops to position it is needed on the front and back of the cab. It sits 1mm below the original base and there are a couple of ridges on the ends of the bodywork which gives you a good guide to position the stops. A new floor needs adding above the chassis to make it easier to fit the boiler and pipework back in place. This needs to be a fraction smaller than the original base and is supported on a couple of strips fitted to each side, which are about 5mm wide so the whole floor will be raised up by 6mm. The boiler will need to be reduced by this 6mm also. This is just about level with the existing body sides so does not look much different from the original arrangement.

© 2021 David Hurst All Rights Reserved


The one item I could nor repair was the side railings, they were just too brittle small and fiddly to work
with. A new pair of railings were made from brass wire soldered together. To make these easier to assemble I formed notches in the 1.5mm poles to allow the 0.7mm handrails to sit in, which were all held in place by Blue tack on a cutting mat, then soldered in place.


© 2021 David Hurst All Rights Reserved


Removing the roof first makes the fitting of the internal pieces much easier. I assembled it dry then painted the floor and fitted everything back in place before putting it in the body. The railings I had reformed in brass wire and painted silver before adding to the body. This meant that there were four poles to locate in the holes on the underside of the roof and the funnel to glue back in place with the cab ends.

The couplings are a bit tricky to fit, I decided to add NEM coupling pockets. These need a hole making in the correct place, so I sat the body on the chassis and lined up the coach bogie with the skirts to mark the hole position, drilled a hole and filed it out to suit. The pockets can then be pushed in from the back and glued in place.

© 2021 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

The body is a little lightweight with the original base removed, so a couple of strips of lead were added to the new floor and also a bit in the boiler for good measure, which seemed to make a difference.

© 2021 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

It makes a really nicely detailed set, and the steam tram goes well with other bits of rolling stock.



Tuesday, 8 December 2020

4mm-3mm Scale Photographic Diorama


                                           © 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

An important part of displaying and photographing my models is the Diorama backdrops they are shown on. I have found that something with a raised track on an embankment or over a small bridge is useful as it allows for eye level shots.
                                        © 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

They do not need to be large and are also a good way to display items of stock at home or at shows, a very good way of practising scenic techniques without committing to a full layout. They can be formed from any light and rigid material such as polystyrene or Polyboard. For my recent ones, I have been using 25 mm polystyrene bonded between outer skins of 4 mm plywood. This gives an extremely light and rigid block which may be shaped with a sharp blade. A sharp short pointed kitchen knife if you are allowed one of these.
I have left the base plywood as a rectangular piece and the upper skin has been pre-cut to the shape of the track bead, this makes it much easier to work the profiles of the surrounding landscape into the polystyrene core block.
                                        © 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

I usually, work from a plan sketched on a piece of wallpaper lining paper; this gives me the position and scale of the main elements of the scene, roads, rivers, rocks, structures, walls, fences, gates and trees. For my latest scene, I have used a small stone bridge, the kind that would be used on an embankment to allow for a small lane or river. This has given me an excuse to add a kink in the track plan, always more interesting than a straight piece of line.
                                         © 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

After cutting out and gluing the plywood and polystyrene together with PVA the glue they were cramped together using a workmate vice, it is best to leave this overnight as the PVA takes some time to dry between the polystyrene.
While this is drying the stone bridge was formed so the landscape could be carved out around it and make sure we get a snug fit. Other elements like fencing and trees can also be pre-made at this time. For this scene, I have used a combination of stone walls, wire fence, and hedges.
                         © 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

The bridge and parapets have been formed in Wills embossed plastic sheet random stone with corbel sheet forming the coping's, the bridge was made in two halves so it could be glued back together again under the trackbed when fully painted and weathered. A base coat of a dark buff colour was used, then further thinned and dry brushed coats of grey, charcoal and earth brown were added, further thinned and dry brushed coats of grey and olive green finished the paintwork off. This should not look uniform but also be in the right areas. The dark charcoal staining on the upper parts of the stones, the green staining around the base and some run down from the coping’s, some areas of buff should still show through the other thin layers of paint.
When the base has dried, I used a sharp short pointed kitchen knife to carve the polystyrene to shape following the profile of the plywood trackbed as a guide. I then used the pre-made bridge to gauge the hole needed under the track for it to fit correctly with the capping’s level with the top of the track.
A rasp file was then used to take all of the sharp edges of the plywood and blend it in with the polystyrene. The edges of the block were then smoothed with some 240 grid sandpaper.
                                         © 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

The next stage was to give the whole diorama a durable shell to apply the decorative finishes too. I have used a brown gum paper tape; this is available form art materials suppliers. I use this for lots of cold moulds forming in my projects, and by building up multiple crossed layers on a former, it is very strong and durable when dried. I used about 6 layers on this diorama, formed in two stages, letting each application of about 3 layers dry before applying the next. Ones it dries it contracts and tightens on the mould.
                                        © 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

Next I added the track, Using Peco 009 rustic flexible track formed into the shape I required, this was bonded to the upper plywood surface with PVA glue and held in place with small clamps overnight till the glue dried. Once dried a couple of check rails were added to the curved sections each side of the bridge, these also extending over the bridge and were held in place with some track pins. The sleepers were predrilled before these pines were pushed in place with some pliers. It was necessary to bend the check rails to shape before fitting them. I painted the sides of the rails with a dark grey & brown mix of revel oil paints to take the shine off the new track work.
The bridge could now be fitted in place ready for the landscape base material to be added around it. The two halves were bonded together with polystyrene cement and then glued in the correct position on the diorama using some contact adhesive.
                                           © 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

For the landscape base I used a mix of plaster filler, PVA glue, and mixed brown powder paint into the mix. This gives a pre-coloured base paste which does save painting the landscape before applying scenic materials such as static grass and scatter materials. It also has the advantage of a stronger plaster that can be applied in a thinner layer which is there for lighter, and if you work it after you have finished the scenery it does not show white through, just a soil colour. The more PVA you add the smoother the mixes surface will become and the longer it takes to dry. Add as little water as possible to form a thick paste, as a dryer mix is easier to apply.
                                        © 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

After letting the base landscape mix dry my thoughts turned to add the track ballast. I wanted a fine stone for this and came up with fine dry building sand which has been sieved. I then added some grey powder paint to this and mixed it dry. Because of the colour of the sand, this did give me a darker coloured ballast, this was not a problem as I wanted to dry brush a lighter grey over some areas and other parts will be covered with static grass. The powder was added round and between the track dry and a medium sized paintbrush used to spread the ballast in and around the sleepers. This was then fixed with a glue mix off 50% PVA and 50% water; a small drop of liquid soap (washing up liquid) is also added to allow the glue to flow through the powder. The glue mix was applied with a syringe; two lots of glue were applied, leaving the first to dry overnight.
The landscape materials were a mix of 3mm late summer dry grass and 2 and 3mm mid tones of green static grass, I used some sponge scatter in patches to give depth to the landscape colour. A rock outcrop and banking was formed using some small sandstone shards crushed up into 4mm scale rocks and bedded in the plaster before it set.
                                        © 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

Trees were formed with wire armatures which I painted with a plaster mix similar to the landscape. A mixture of landscape material ware used to form the foliage, these included Woodland Scenics foliage and sponge scatter added to the armatures with contact adhesive and PVA glue. Some small trees ware formed with a bamboo trunk and lichen sprinkled with sponge scatter applied over the top. This method was also used to form gorse bushes with the yellow flowers being added by using a yellow acrylic paint dabbed over the top and upper sides of the bush.
For the fencing I used lollypop sticks cut to a suitable section and length and drill with some fine holes through which I threaded a grey cotton thread, leaving this long to allow the fitting of the fence posts before drawing the thread tight and sealing it with PVA glue.
                                      © 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved


Tuesday, 8 September 2020

Peckett Style Tram Engine



©  2020   David Hurst     All  Rights Reserved

This engine was inspired by an article in the 009 News September 2019 by Ben Powell, who had accomplished a fantastic scratch version of a Peckett saddle tank shunter, on a Ndrive chassis with special outside cranks. Hornby has also brought out a standard gauge 0-6-0 version of a Pickett shunter which is super detailed, and I love the colour selected for that model.  So, taking this style of the small engine as a guide I drew up a tram version to run on the newer Kato 11-110 chassis, more of a challenge to myself to come up with something that looked similar as a 009-tram engine.

The result of the drawing is a 3D printed version, which is printed as one piece to be split into roof, body, footplate and couplings. This can be printed in White Versatile Plastic or Fine Detailed Plastic. With the addition of small handrail knobs, brass wire and smokebox door darts looks like a passable resemblance to a Peckett style tram engine.    


©  2020   David Hurst     All  Rights Reserved

 I had a sample printed by Shapeways in Fine Detailed Plastic. When this arrived with me, I soaked it in Petroleum organic solvent – paint thinners (“White Sprits” in the UK) in order to remove the wax support residue left from printing, then a wash in warm soapy water should leave the surface ready for painting after it is fully dried. I use a grey or white spray primer to prep the model for finishing. In some areas, it will be necessary to remove print lines from the surface, and this can be done with a burnishing tool - I use a hardwood stick with a rounded point to get in the tight spaces. Do these processes before separating the print into its component parts so you will be less likely to lose any of the small pieces.

Wirework and details

The next job was to add the handrails to the saddle tank and at the side of the cab. I obtained these from a supplier on eBay for both the wire and the small brass handrail knobs. I have used Alan Gibson versions in the past, but these turned out every bit as good. The cab side handrails I formed as small staples bent with pliers to the right size and fitted into the pilot holes supplied in the model. I did have to drill out the holes for the small handrail knobs to give them a clearance fit. The handrails were then glued in place with Cyanoacrylate (super) glue.
The smokebox door dart I ordered from RT Models who supply a good range of 4mm detailing parts, the darts come in white metal or cast brass. I used the brass version in this model.

©  2020   David Hurst     All  Rights Reserved
The new Kato 11-110 chassis is a welcome improvement on the later version of the 11-104 which they replace, having more weight, different gearing, a brass flywheel and much smother electric motor. They fit within a similar opening as the original. They do not need as much ballast to run well, but adding some is a good idea for traction. I used small strips of lead fitted along the inside of the skirts, as low as possible to keep the engine balanced.   
The couplings I used on this model were the printed ones, but others could be fitted such as Greenwich or NEM couplings. The aperture in the buffer beams will take the Peco 103 NEM pockets and couplings.


©  2020   David Hurst     All  Rights Reserved

Painting and finishing

Once all the additional bits and details were added I gave the model a final coat of grey spray primer and made sure all was ready of the final paint finish. For this model, I was trying some Tamiya acrylic paints, for the body XF-4 Yellow Green the footplate, roof Handrails, smokebox door, funnel and couplings XF-85 Rubber Black on the buffer beams XF-7 Flat Red. Using these I noticed that each colour has a different consistency, the XF-4 and XF-7 being thin and needing several coats were as the XF-85 was smother creamer and needed fewer coats. Some details like the window frames I picked out in a brass enamel paint and the cab handrails, cylinders and couplings were painted in a gunmetal metallic enamel paint.

©  2020   David Hurst     All  Rights Reserved

I wanted to add an etched nameplate and number transfers to the model. I applied a coat of clear gloss enamel varnish to the areas these were to be placed, this is a better surface to apply the transfers to and allows you to adjust and position them much easier. I used “Fox” 2mm waterslide transfers in black for the cab sides and rear and white for the front buffer beam. The etched nameplate was obtained from an eBay supplier “N Brass Locos” of premade 009 industrial engine nameplates. These plates were glued in place with a small amount Cyanoacrylate (super) glue, though a contact adhesive works as well and does give time to adjust the position on the model. Once this was completed, I applied a coat of matt enamel varnish to the whole surface of the model, this also seals the transfers in place.

©  2020   David Hurst     All  Rights Reserved

The final additions to the model were to add some real crushed coal to the rear bunker, by adding PVA glue to the bunker area and then tipping a small amount of the coal over this using a tube as a micro shovel to place it correctly. I have in the past made some working lamps from white Plasticard and rhinestones of clear and red plastic and I used two of these for the running lamps for this engine.

©  2020   David Hurst     All  Rights Reserved

If you would like a 3D print of this model visit Shapeways at:

Sunday, 16 August 2020

009 Morris J Rail-Van


Built with Die Cast body and Kato chassis
009 Morris J Rail-Van
4 mm scale 

©  2020   David Hurst     All  Rights Reserved

 Hunting through the internet on my prolonged absences from work April 2020, I came across an Oxford Classix Morris J Van for sale on eBay, as this was for a very reasonable price and I had an idea for a small service van on a backwater railway, I bought it. 

©  2020   David Hurst     All  Rights Reserved

 Having received my van and dismantled it, I took a Kato 11-109 chassis and had a go fitting this into the body shell. The major alterations to the chassis had to be done to the front part of the unit, some metal had to be removed, this allowed it to sit in the right alignment to the wheel arches. To do this bit of cutting, I removed the plastic shell from the chassis and cut the front off using a cutting disk in a mini drill. One thing to observe when doing this the metal chassis is in two electricity isolated halves, so when the cutting is done make sure that there are no little bits of metalwork still bridging the gap between the two. This will cause a short circuit.

©  2020   David Hurst     All  Rights Reserved

 I then carefully removed just over half of the metalwork which held the plastic floor pan and wheels in place at each end of the inner body shell. This allowed the chassis to sit far enough into the body to place the centres of the wheels at the bottom line of the bodywork.

©  2020   David Hurst     All  Rights Reserved

 I then cut off the front and rear mudguards from the floor pan, which was a tricky job on the front ones as I did this by keeping the front part of the floor pan connecting them together, this made it much easier to line them up when fitted. These were glued to the metal bodywork with a little super glue, I did remove the paint from the wheel arches on the body first. The inside of the rear ones were made flush with the inner body, but the front ones I left to overhanging a bit and cut back the chassis to suit.

©  2020   David Hurst     All  Rights Reserved

The chassis needed trimming at both sides mainly at the front to squeeze into place. Once this was lined up I drilled a series of holes to suit 1 mm soft steel wire and formed some side rails and a front and rear bumper rail, and that was it, a relativity quick fix with no painting or finishing needed, though I will probably give it a coat of matt varnish and a bit of weathering. 

©  2020   David Hurst     All  Rights Reserved

The little van is a good weight because of the metal body and runs very well with the new style Kato chassis.

Saturday, 11 July 2020

009 Waddington Rail Bus


© 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

It was quite by accident that I came upon a 1930s railbus photograph while searching for something else on the internet. I liked the 1930s aero styling and the design looked perfect to adapt to a narrow gauge variant. The original Waddington V8 railbus was designed as a feeder vehicle for the main railway lines in Sidney during the 1930s, running on standard gauge lines.

© 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

The result of the drawing is a 3D printed version, which is printed as one piece to be split into the roof and upper body, and lower body. This can be printed in White Versatile Plastic or Fine Detailed Plastic with the addition of brass wire to form handrails. Couplings could be added to the model, but I have not added any to this version.



I had a sample printed by Shapeways in Fine Detailed Plastic. When this arrived I soaked it in Petroleum organic solvent – paint thinners (“White Spirits” in the UK) in order to remove the wax support residue left from printing. I then washed it in warm soapy water to leave the surface ready for painting when fully dried. I use a grey or white spray primer to prep the model for finishing. In some areas, it will be necessary to remove print lines from the surface, and this can be done with a burnishing tool - I use a hardwood stick with a rounded point to get in the tight spaces. Do these processes before separating the print into its component parts so you will be less likely to lose any of the small pieces.

© 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

Wirework and details
The next job was to add the handrails to the door which is on the righthand side of the vehicle only. I obtained this from a supplier on eBay. The handrails were formed as small staples bent with pliers to the right size and fitted into the pilot holes supplied in the model. The handrails were fitted but not glued in place at this point in the construction process.

© 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

The glazing was formed by making card templates of the windows and then transferring this to clear acetate, which I usually recycle from packaging. It is best to paint the model before adding the glazing material and gluing in place.

© 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

The model has been designed to run on the new Kato 11-110 chassis, which are a welcome improvement on the later version of the 11-104 that they replace, having more weight, different gearing, a brass flywheel, and much smoother electric motor. They fit within a similar opening as the original. They do not need as much ballast to run well, but adding some is a good idea for traction. I used small strips of lead fitted along the inside of the bodywork, as low as possible to keep the models balanced right.
As mentioned, I did not use coupling on this version of the model, but if a small slot were made in the front bumper and above the rear bumper Greenwich or similar couplings could be used.

Painting and finishing
Once all the additional bits and details were added and before glazing the model, I gave the model a final coat of grey spray primer and made sure all was ready for the final paint finish. For this model, I used some Humbrol enamels. These were a mixed pale green and an off white. Some details such as the window frames 
and bumpers were picked out in a silver enamel paint. I applied a coat of matt enamel varnish to the whole surface of the model.

© 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

The final job was to add the glazing in place to the inside of the upper bodywork. Once this was complete the bodywork was glued together and the handrails added and glued in place. 
I used Cyanoacrylate (super) glue to fix these components together.

© 2020 David Hurst All Rights Reserved

If you would like a 3D print of this model visit Shapeways at: